Bilingualism As Social and Cultural Experience

There is no harm in a child’s being able to communicate with members of his or her family in their first language. For whom is it most important to develop communicative competence in two languages, and why? Bilingualism develops when people participate in day-to-day activities that require them to use two languages. For example, it may be an asset to be able to address family members in the native language but be able to use the second language when necessary in the broader community.

Beyond the linguistic competence aspect of bilingualism, it is also necessary to consider sociocultural and political aspects. Bilingualism is more than just speaking two languages. Specifically, when people, children, and adults become bicultural through diverse sociocultural experiences, this affects their levels of bilingualism. For bilinguals who live in the linguistic borderlands, whether geographically or ideologically, a primary goal is to develop and maintain their bicultural identities through preserving their customs, values, and ways of speaking among members of their communities.

Bilinguals who grow up in these borderlands develop a bicultural worldview and identity that governs when, with whom, and where they use each of their languages. From a negative perspective, the bilingual may be viewed as being “caught” between two languages and two cultures, proficient in neither. From a borderlands perspective, in contrast, the bilingual can be viewed as the creator of hybrid spaces where experiences and knowledge in two languages and cultures contribute to his or her abilities to negotiate the social, political, and economic environment.

The languages people speak influence the cultural values they acquire as part of their bilingual worlds. Each language one learns brings with it a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes that belong to the members of a language community at a given time.

Social and Cultural Impact in Human Life

Human beings are appropriately programmed within the concept and meaning of creation. It evidently and comprehensively exhibits the creational realities from time of conceiving and through existence until culmination. Therefore, the people throughout their lives are obliged and required to accomplish their task as expected by them. However, there are variations in their performances, hence deviating from their intended track. The former act is of paramount importance as compared to the latter. Although, the second part has its own impact, yet, it meets with denial and rejections.

The interaction or social get-together is the pivotal point in human life. The celebration of these activities follows the rhythmic pattern of life. It integrates values of life from past through present and carried forward into the future. It has an interesting angle too, showing peripheral and in-depth nature. It is also a fact that it leaves a lasting impact in an individual’s life. It stimulates and compels us to think beyond its visible signs and effects. We, then, remember these events and cherish the memories of past and present and hoping for a better future.

The words, interaction and remembrance are not restricted to our society alone. Its impact stretches much more and goes beyond our lives. The expression of feelings and its impact towards other creation’s realities leaves imprints on human mind. There are reasons and obligations within and outside the environments of social events. These are governing tools of internal and external forces. A question arises within the mind over this issue. Are these reason volunteers in nature or otherwise, is the point to ponder?

The common interest evolves out of an interaction is a social cause which is remembered and appreciated. However, the unpleasant situation paints a sordid picture too. Therefore, it becomes important to concentrate on social interaction based on mutual respect and dignity. Thus, people will look forward to a meeting which will eventually remember many occasions to cherish.

There are important factors, which could be either a trivial issue or complex in nature. The thoughts and feelings behind these factors are of great significance. It also profoundly leaves a trail of pleasant memories and events to remember. Therefore, we must evolve means to explore and exploit these trivial issues and turn them into the lasting memories of happiness and joy.

In general, people are involved in the materialistic world to such an extent that they forget the realities of life. They ignore happiness and comforts within each other’s company. These are the crucial moments, wherein, fleeting thoughts and exchanges of pleasantries will change the scenario. Hence, it is essential to transform these moments into melody and music that affect our existence in meaningful ways. Thus, interaction and get together at regular intervals are necessary and needed. It not only maintains harmony among each other, but also impacts overall personality.

The remembrance will eventually reflect, periodically, sweet memories. The importance is not restricted to many great events and celebrations. Multiple issues or a single event can leave a huge impact. It will transform the situation into an eternal factor of extreme happiness and joy. The warp and weft of fabric of social interaction and mutual respect will culminate into a comfort zone of peace. The outcome of such cultural events will transform into memorable remembrance. This is a very important noticeable point, and we should seriously look into the whole issue.

The points to ponder are insignificant issues, yet profound in its meaning and effects. It can also become a pillar of support to a healthy society. It is our responsibility to evolve a path of love and affection reflecting humility. It will, eventually upheld human values and develop a healthy mind. Thus, the line of thinking will follow a path of sweet memories and remembrance.

Economic Social and Cultural Rights Compared With Civil and Political Rights

The universal declaration of human rights recognises two sets of human rights. The traditional civil and political rights, as well is economic, social and cultural rights. In transforming the decorations provisions into legally binding obligations, the United Nations adopted two separate international covenants which, taken together, constitute the International to protect human rights. The official position, dating back to the universal declaration reaffirmed in resolutions since that time, is that the two covenants and sets of freedoms, in the words adopted by the second world conference in Vienna, ‘universal, indivisible and interdependent. But this formal consensus masks deep and enduring disagreement over the proper status of economic, social and cultural elements.

One extreme bias of the view that these rights are superior to civil and political rights in the appropriate value hierarchy and in chronological terms. Of what use is the right to free speech to those who are starving and illiterate? At the other extreme we find the view that economic and social rights to not constitute rights as properly understood at all. Treating them as rights undermines the enjoyment of individual freedom, distorts the functioning of free markets by justifying large-scale state intervention in the economy, and provides an excuse to downgrade the importance of civil and political rights. although variations on these extremes have dominated both diplomatic and academic discourse, the great majority of governments have taken some sort of intermediate position.

For the most part the position has involved support for the importance of economic and social rights as of March 2000 142 states were parties to the international convention on economic social and cultural rights, compared with 144 parties to the International covenant on civil and political rights, taken together with a failure to keep steps to entrench those rights constitutionally, to adopt legislative or administrative provisions based explicitly on the recognition of specific economic and social rights as international human rights, or to provide effective means of redress to individuals or groups alleging violations of those rights. Indeed, one of the puzzles in the field lies in the rare invocation of the International covenant on economic social and cultural rights in the play of internal politics or in the judiciary is in most states, compared with the frequent indication of civil and political rights provisions of the universal declaration of human rights, the International covenant on civil and political rights to such as European Convention on human rights.

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Know Your Social and Cultural Cues in Contributing to Eating Behavior

Obesity has been an arising problem in countries especially among the Americans. Many obesity related illness, disorders and deaths should not only contribute to genes and the ‘greediness’ of a person; obesity should be taken more seriously than just a stigma. It reflects with your culture and lifestyle too.

In a social setting, people eat more in groups than when they eat alone. This is largely due to the fact that meals in a group last longer, and you are not totally aware of eating while waiting for the rest to finish their meals. Thus, your eating behavior has changed in this setting. It is advisable that you bring like-minded friends to your dining table; or that you date a vegetarian. You are prone to eat less than normal on a date and that might be good for you unless you return home stuffing yourself with food from the fridge.

The nation of obesity, the Americans, eat more and feel less guilty when they think the food is labeled as ‘low-fat’, even if in fact the label is not as true as it claims. It does not make much of a difference when you replace two diet bars instead of scrumptious chocolate bar with nuts coating. The truth is that you could never stop eating when your satiety needs are not met. The more you go for diet meals, the more you crave for the real deal behind the doors. It is important for you to question yourself if that the ‘fat-free’ labels are only to reduce your guilt but not your weight. It is good to savor the food and feel contented rather than to suffer from endless insatiable feelings.

Meanwhile, your eating behavior is also shaped by the convenience and amount of food available. Americans have Super Size meal combos; and fast food chains are never out of sight. The availability of food and the go-large size that comes together could very much encourage you to eat more even though you are never hungry. These cues in your own culture make you have less thought in choice and that the media priming make you psychologically addicted to the food that are advertised. It is always important that you stay assertive though media influences could be a tough battle to overcome.

Your eating patterns are highly related to your upbringing and culture. Hence, instead of focusing on how to lose weight or involve yourself into extreme exercising you might want to reevaluate the social and cultural settings you are in.

Bodrum is the Host to a Plethora of Social and Cultural Events Every Year

On the South Aegean coast of Turkey lays the town of Bodrum, with its dichotomy of modern architecture interspersed with the ruins of an ancient metropolis. The 28,000 natives of this eclectic village prosper mainly from boat-building, fishing, agriculture, weaving and, of course, tourism.

Home to the Tomb of King Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World which is attributed to Artemisia II and the source of the modern word, Mausoleum, Bodrum, formerly known as Halicarnassus, is famous as one of the hot spots of the Tourism Industry in Turkey. In their endless quest for inspiration, famous artists from Turkey and abroad flock to explore Bodrum’s quaint charm and picturesque surroundings. Bodrum is the host to a plethora of social and cultural events every year:

Beginning with New Years Day, the celebration is all you’ve come to expect around the world.
In mid-May, the Bodrum Bicycle Festival encourages drivers to take a two-wheel approach, promoting clean air in the town. The bike-ride begins on Neyzen Tevfik Street and end up at Quay Centre.
A variety of demonstrations and exhibits of antique diving equipment highlight the Bodrum Underwater Society Diving Festival.
From late July to early August, the Bodrum Festival is an attraction for multitudes of on-lookers with its numerous musical performances in the scenic setting of the Castle.
In August, the neighboring, seaside village of Gumusluk hosts the Gumusluk international Classical Music Festival, with additional shows featuring top musicians from Turkey and around the world at the Bodrum Amphitheatre.
In mid-August, at the Yalikavak Marina, the Aegean Festival features regional dishes, folk music and dancing.
At the Castle of St. Peter, in mid to late August, celebrated orchestras perform classical repertoires for the Bodrum International Ballet Festival.
The Bodrum Cup Wooden Yacht Regatta – Every October, this entertaining regatta sees the racing participation of traditional wooden craft from the world over.

These are but a few of the many events hosted in Bodrum. Before Cevat Sakir made Bodrum famous in the 1960s, it was little more a sleepy, fishing village. Under his pen-name, “The Fisherman of Halicarnassus”, Sakir romanticized the charming little town as he described seeing the Aegean Coast in a gullet. His book, “Blue Voyage”, had a tremendous impact upon the local boat-building and tourism industries.

In the cool shade of St. Peter’s Castle, you can find the heart of this little town, with its narrow streets lined with inviting bars, restaurants and shops. Cumhuriyet Caddesi, the main street, is a dream for shopping enthusiasts and rookies alike. In its boutiques and souvenir shops, you can treat yourself to our exotic wares. Precious stones, copper and brassware, custom-designed clothing creations in our native blue prints and luxurious textiles, fezzes, even harem slippers…all of this awaits you. Able artisans offer to pamper your feet with handcrafted sandals. Sample a plethora of international as well as traditional Ottoman cuisine in our restaurants and cafes. You simply can not visit without trying Raki, the Turkish National drink, its grape-derived essence a wonderful complement to a white cheese, going delightfully, as well, with fresh tomatoes, cucumbers or seafood.

The setting of the sun heralds the latest popular beats from London, Berlin or New York, and Bodrum comes to life. The trendy start for a night on the town is enjoying a cocktail poolside or on the beach, followed by a jaunt to one of the many happening bars and restaurants. Some prefer to meet on Cumhuriyet Caddesi, the well-known Bar Street, before hitting the popular clubs to dance the night away. Bodrum is a relaxing haven in the off-season, with its appealing alleys filled with rows of old-fashioned white houses. The marina is the perfect spot to get cozy and take in a spectacular sunset. The summer months can get pretty wild here, but if serenity is what you seek, the bohemian villages like Bardakci, Gumbet, Bitez, Ortakent, Turgutreis, Gumusluk, Yalikavak, Turkbuku and Torba lining the sandy coastal inlets of the peninsula are just a hop, skip and a jump away by “Dolmush”. There are many of these enchanting and picture-perfect little villages on the peninsula, just waiting to be discovered.

The Social and Culture of Chinese Body Gestures

Social life and culture always go hand in hand. Culture will affect how people act and speak, and the way people socialize with one another. So, while doing business with Chinese people, or just having a genuine conversation, do you ever find yourself in an awkward position? You don’t know how to react or what is appropriate? This short article will outline how to behave during a conversation, and explain why Chinese act the way they do.

Do

In China, people stand more close to each other while talking than Westerners. The reason Chinese people do this is to show politeness, trust, willingness to fit in, and simply because people do not have enough space.
The natives show more affection to their same gender, for example, to their best friend. Males will put their arms over another male shoulder, and females hold each other’s hands. This gesture shows that they are the best of friends, and not that they are homosexual.
If you are a woman, and feel that your space is being violated by an overly friendly Chinese person because of excessive physical contact, you should not hesitate to yell “Boo” (meaning “No”) directly to that person.

Don’t

Even though people stand close to each other, it does not mean that you can touch the opposite sex. After the initial handshake, you should avoid creating physical contact.
When greeting or saying goodbye, Chinese people will not hug or kiss. So, you should keep that in mind.
As a couple, Chinese people also do not show public affection towards each other, such as kissing or hugging, but this tradition may change over time.
While talking, you should not use too many hand gestures. Hand gestures can sometime look childish. Or you may poke somebody’s eyes out because you’re standing too close.
Don’t show emotion when you are angry or mad. In Chinese tradition, only lower class people cannot control their emotions.
Don’t ever touch a person’s head (including children’s) on any occasion. This is the most disrespectful gesture that you can do to an Asian person.

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My name is Dat Nguyen. Thank you for taking your time off to read this article. The article comes from culture-4-travel.com [http://www.culture-4-travel.com]. The site is concentrate on helping people to communicate in different culture, explain what is appropriate in each country, and all the dos and don’ts.

Religion and Culture Towards Women Ignored Today

In today’s world, girls and women everywhere struggle with their identity, character, and personality while trying to find their way through their belief system. Some are affected by their choice of belief system at their schools, work, and their community. The females that are mostly affected are young girls. Today, this is a subject that is ignored in the school systems.

We all have the right to choose our own belief system. But, when we do we should not be judged or penalized for it. Most teen females that are apart of a religious background are not sure how to apply their moral psychological characteristics. This happens because in schools today, students do not respect and accept each other. Most do not because in their home, they are taught to only socialize with certain people or that some people are beneath them. Other students that live in a lower class community would take their aggressions from home, bring their home issues to school while challenging and lashing out physically on students that do not have the same “like status” as them. While at school, they find a way to continuously interrupt the religious students day negatively. They feel this is a way to become popular and happier by bullying and picking on other students. This causes the religious student to become one or more of the following: rebellious towards parents, rebellious toward religion, sad, depressed, have identity issues, become mute, self destruct, lonely,or have other abnormal psychological disorders.

To have an understanding of what to expect in society today, there must be someone to explain to youth about different groups of people. Most students do not have someone at home whom can explain to them in a way whereas they understand. All schools have social workers that are available to assist students that have special needs or students per request. What about the students that are visibly religious and the students that are not? Although, religion is forbidden in the school system I believe there should be a “Real Perspective” class for all students in every school district. This particular class would be geared towards today’s crossroads of social interaction and cultural groups. These classes would provide religious students and students that are not with a better understanding of what acceptance means, how to respect other’s choices, have a understanding of other cultures and religious groups in society, and teach them how to become independent of their own choices while having confidence in their own identity. Students will then have the choice to become stronger and they will be able to make better choices while growing into an adult. The “Real Perspective” class would also lessen the percentage of trouble making students, fights at schools, detentions, and suspensions.

In the past, I went through similar situations as young girls today. While living with my parents on the westside of Chicago, my siblings and I lived a religious life. Our religion brought us joy, but at the same time it brought about many questions. Some of the questions are questions students and other women have had for many years. Questions such as: who am I? Who am I representing? Why people don’t accept you for who you are? Why some parents chose a certain belief system? Why does it affect us in society?

When a child or teen is emotionally, mentally, or physically hurt it becomes a personal issue for all. Unfortunately, when it comes to culture or religion it is not taken into perspective today in the school systems. My heart goes out to girls and women that have gone through or is experiencing this today. I will try my best to connect with girls and women everywhere by using strategies that will provide them hope, laughter, self assurance, growth, happiness, motivation, self sufficiency, confidence, encouragement, inspiration, love, and strength.

Today, I am not religious, but I have a strong belief system of faith and prayer. Because of the confusion of society and religion that I experienced growing as a female in the 90’s, I lived a life of misunderstanding which later led me to being poor for quite some time. Today, I am an author, founder of a family and youth outreach ministry, motivational speaker, Lifecoach, youth counselor, legal advocate, and has a Masters Degree in Higher Education. Soon, I will have my Doctoral Degree in Philosophy.

I am thankful for the teachings my parent’s have taught me. What sticks out the most is prayer and family. There is certainly nothing like the power of love and togetherness. If they didn’t teach me these resourceful tools of life, I would not have known how to teach my children and others to become socially involved by using the power of faith in society. Today, I am also humbly grateful!

Bilingualism As Social and Cultural Experience

There is no harm in a child’s being able to communicate with members of his or her family in their first language. For whom is it most important to develop communicative competence in two languages, and why? Bilingualism develops when people participate in day-to-day activities that require them to use two languages. For example, it may be an asset to be able to address family members in the native language but be able to use the second language when necessary in the broader community.

Beyond the linguistic competence aspect of bilingualism, it is also necessary to consider sociocultural and political aspects. Bilingualism is more than just speaking two languages. Specifically, when people, children, and adults become bicultural through diverse sociocultural experiences, this affects their levels of bilingualism. For bilinguals who live in the linguistic borderlands, whether geographically or ideologically, a primary goal is to develop and maintain their bicultural identities through preserving their customs, values, and ways of speaking among members of their communities.

Bilinguals who grow up in these borderlands develop a bicultural worldview and identity that governs when, with whom, and where they use each of their languages. From a negative perspective, the bilingual may be viewed as being “caught” between two languages and two cultures, proficient in neither. From a borderlands perspective, in contrast, the bilingual can be viewed as the creator of hybrid spaces where experiences and knowledge in two languages and cultures contribute to his or her abilities to negotiate the social, political, and economic environment.

The languages people speak influence the cultural values they acquire as part of their bilingual worlds. Each language one learns brings with it a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes that belong to the members of a language community at a given time.

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Economic Social and Cultural Rights Compared With Civil and Political Rights

The universal declaration of human rights recognises two sets of human rights. The traditional civil and political rights, as well is economic, social and cultural rights. In transforming the decorations provisions into legally binding obligations, the United Nations adopted two separate international covenants which, taken together, constitute the International to protect human rights. The official position, dating back to the universal declaration reaffirmed in resolutions since that time, is that the two covenants and sets of freedoms, in the words adopted by the second world conference in Vienna, ‘universal, indivisible and interdependent. But this formal consensus masks deep and enduring disagreement over the proper status of economic, social and cultural elements.

One extreme bias of the view that these rights are superior to civil and political rights in the appropriate value hierarchy and in chronological terms. Of what use is the right to free speech to those who are starving and illiterate? At the other extreme we find the view that economic and social rights to not constitute rights as properly understood at all. Treating them as rights undermines the enjoyment of individual freedom, distorts the functioning of free markets by justifying large-scale state intervention in the economy, and provides an excuse to downgrade the importance of civil and political rights. although variations on these extremes have dominated both diplomatic and academic discourse, the great majority of governments have taken some sort of intermediate position.

For the most part the position has involved support for the importance of economic and social rights as of March 2000 142 states were parties to the international convention on economic social and cultural rights, compared with 144 parties to the International covenant on civil and political rights, taken together with a failure to keep steps to entrench those rights constitutionally, to adopt legislative or administrative provisions based explicitly on the recognition of specific economic and social rights as international human rights, or to provide effective means of redress to individuals or groups alleging violations of those rights. Indeed, one of the puzzles in the field lies in the rare invocation of the International covenant on economic social and cultural rights in the play of internal politics or in the judiciary is in most states, compared with the frequent indication of civil and political rights provisions of the universal declaration of human rights, the International covenant on civil and political rights to such as European Convention on human rights.

Social Networking Effects on Culture

Social networking creates an environment of connectedness previously unseen in many cultures. Prior to the explosion of social networking, individuals relied upon other forms of communication to stay in touch with friends and relatives, including telephone calls and electronic mail. Social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter allow people to stay connected to family and friends, as well as a multitude of other individuals, both locally and globally. This access is a new cultural frontier.
Workplace

One significant impact of social networking is found in the workplace. This impact operates in two ways. First, people posting information and comments about coworkers and supervisors can land in trouble over statements made within their social circle. On the other hand, employers use social networking to cast a wider net in the potential employee pool. Culturally, labor and management sometimes find themselves sharing thoughts and insights through social networks.

Relationships

In addition to workplace changes, social networking causes relationship changes. Before social networking existed, relationships mostly came from physically knowing an individual. As Facebook and Twitter became prevalent, connections grew outside the immediate circle of friends and family. This has allowed a person in New York City, for example, to create a relationship with someone in Los Angeles without a physical encounter. The destructive side to social networking and relationships comes when spouses discover unfaithful behavior through online social sites.

Bonds

Despite sometimes causing problems within relationships, social networking sites create bonds for people struggling with problems. For example, if a person goes to a foreign country, initial feelings of being cut off and lost are lessened via social networking sites. A person using Twitter can closely monitor what friends and family are doing back home by following their tweets. At the same time, those left back home are given access to a loved one in a distant land.

Other Cultures

Social networking profoundly affects other cultures. Evidence of this is seen in the 2011 unrest in Arab nations, leading to protests and even the overthrow of governments. Social networking allowed people involved in the protests to share pictures and videos with the outside world, even as the governments in power attempted to keep information from leaking outside the country’s borders.

Maliciousness

Social networking allows unscrupulous people greater access to potential victims. Malicious software creators build websites, relying upon current popular search data, planting viruses and spyware on web pages visited from links on social networking sites.